Nephrology is a branch of medicine concerned with kidney disease, kidney problems treatment and renal replacement treatments. Diabetes, hypertension, metabolic bone disease and auto immune disease are some conditions that affect the kidneys.
The kidneys play a vital role for human lives with their complex, intricate network of tubes, blood vessels and tubules filtering the blood of excess water and waste products. They also maintain electrolytes, fluids, acid-base regulation which are altered by drugs, toxins and due to diseases. Nephrologists take into consideration family, medical history, diet, medication, drug use and occupation. Kidney functioning is lost due to many things like deformities occurring at birth where kidneys are malformed, blocked or even completely absent, hereditary conditions, drugs, toxins overdose, hypertension, infections, kidney stones and diabetes.
Nephrologists conduct tests and procedures like urinalysis, pathology of kidney, ultra sound and biopsy of kidney and do temporary dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney transplantations. Blood tests and urine tests show the level of sugar, urea and creatinine and show urine abnormalities such as protein excess excretion, pus cells, cancer cells, casts and crystals, and also kidney and bladder stones. In some cases, the nephrologists have to work in sync with urologists when it concerns with the urinary bladder and urethra along with the kidneys.
Nephrologists improve the chances of survival of patients first by prescribing drugs, in some cases steroids and when the kidneys can no longer support the demands of the body they try to help artificially by dialysis and only as a last resort they do kidney transplants when it is also the end stage of renal failure and the kidneys are unable to clear waste products from the blood. Nephrologists also treat cancer of urethra, kidneys, bladder, polycystic kidney and nephritis.