Otorhinolaryngologic [ ENT ]

Otorhinolaryngologic also known as ENT is a study of ear, nose and throat or ENT Surgeons are surgical specialists who diagnose, evaluate and manage a wide range of diseases of the head and neck, including the ear, nose and throat regions.

An ENT specialist generally aims at treating conditions that affect the senses such as hearing and balance disorders or smell and taste problems. They can also treat patients with all affected part in their voice, breathing and swallowing as well as those with head and neck tumours including the skull base and interface with the brain. They usually treat people of all ages from new-born babies to elderly people. They see more children than most other surgeons, apart from paediatric surgeons. The attractive fact is that they treat a wide spectrum of ages and diseases.

A one third of an ENT surgeon’s time is spent in outpatient clinics and managing conditions medically without the need for surgery. The usage of the microscopes & endoscopes in outpatients allows treatment/ diagnosis in the clinic. Some of the conditions that affects ears, nose and throat are :-


The conditions of ears include:

  • Age related hearing loss
  • Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and eustachian tube dysfunction
  • Dizziness and vertigo
  • Car infections
  • Perforated ear drum and cholesteatoma
  • Protruding ears

Nose conditions include:

  • Sinus infection and rhino-sinusitis, including in children
  • Injuries to the nose
  • Nasal polyps
  • Tumours
  • Obstructions to the nasal area
  • Protruding ears

Throat conditions include:

  • Tonsillitis, sometimes requiring surgical removal of the tonsils, usually in childhood
  • Hoarseness and laryngitis
  • Swallowing problems
  • Upper airway breathing problems
  • Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea when breathing stops during sleep.
  • Central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord.
  • Peripheral nervous system: sensory receptors like eyes, ears, skin etc

A doctor who specializes in neurology is called a neurologist. Before they can practice, neurologists must graduate from medical school, complete an internship and receive three years of training in a Neurology residency program.

The neurologist conducts tests and treats disorders that will affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Symptoms that commonly require a neurologist intervention includes: coordination problems, muscle weakness, a change in sensation, confusion and dizziness.

People who are having issues and conditions relating to their senses, such as touch, vision, or smell, might also need to see a neurologist. Problems with senses are sometimes caused by the nervous system disorders.


Neurologists also see patients with:

  • Seizure disorders, such as epilepsy
  • Stroke
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis
  • Infections of the nervous system, including encephalitis, meningitis, or brain abscesses
  • Spinal cord disorders
  • Headaches, like cluster headaches and migraines

Neurologists, generally do not perform surgery. If one of their patients requires any surgery, they refer them to a neurosurgeon.

During a patient’s first appointment with a neurologist, he/she will likely perform a physical exam and a neurological exam. A neurological exam will test the patient’s muscle strength, reflexes, and coordination. Since different disorders can have similar symptoms, the neurologist would need more testing to come to a diagnosis.

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